This neural tube defect can occur anywhere along the spinal column, and the severity of the neurological problems is often dependent on the location of the defect. Children with defects of the lower spine typically have better outcomes than those who have defects of the upper spine. The symptoms of spina bifida might cause disabilities that range from mild conditions such as difficulty walking to complete paralysis and impaired bladder and bowel function.
What are the types of spina bifida?
There are several types or variations of spina bifida. These variations depend on how the neural tube defect develops, what is protruding through the open neural tube, and what is covering the spina bifida abnormality. These variations include:
is the most common and most severe form of spina bifida. With myelomeningocele, a sac of fluid that holds part of the spinal cord and nerve tissue protrudes through an opening in the baby’s back. This damages the spinal cord and nerves through exposing them to the amniotic fluid. MMC can result in partial or complete paralysis of the body below the level of the spinal opening, an inability to walk, and/or bladder and bowel dysfunction.
is a flat neural tube defect without a layer of skin covering the opening in the spine. With myeloschisis, the spinal cord and the surrounding nerve tissue are also exposed to the amniotic fluid. This form of spina bifida has similar risks and symptoms as myelomeningocele.
MMC and myeloschisis are both open neural tube defects, which are treatable by fetal repair surgery.
is a form of spina bifida where there is an outpouching or sac through an abnormal opening in the fetal spine, but the sac contains only spinal fluid. This abnormality does not contain any nerve tissues. Often the sac is covered by skin. Babies with meningocele may have few or no symptoms, while others may develop degrees of paralysis with bladder and bowel dysfunction.
Spina bifida occulta,
or “hidden spina bifida,” is the mildest form of spina bifida, where a small gap in the spine occurs, but there is no opening or sac on the baby’s back. Often not discovered until late childhood or early adulthood, this condition usually does not cause any disabilities as the spinal cord and the nerves are typically normal.
What causes spina bifida?
In most cases, the causes of spina bifida are unknown, though it has been associated with maternal diabetes, certain medications and certain genetic problems. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention urges all women capable of becoming pregnant to take 400 micrograms or more of folic acid every day for at least three months prior to pregnancy to help prevent neural tube defects.
What are the risk factors?
While the symptoms of spina bifida can range from mild to severe, most children with spina bifida experience major disabilities throughout their lifetime. These include: neuromuscular issues; paralysis of the lower limbs, or the inability to walk; bowel and bladder control difficulties; brain abnormalities such as brain herniation; and learning disabilities.
What are the exams and tests to diagnose spina bifida in pregnancy?
Spina bifida can be diagnosed during pregnancy. A common blood test, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), is offered during the 15th to 20th week of pregnancy to screen for spina bifida. If the levels of alpha-fetoprotein are abnormal (elevated), doctors can use additional tests, such as ultrasound and amniocentesis, to diagnose spina bifida. Use of the AFP test along with an ultrasound typically identifies 90 percent of cases.
If it is determined that the unborn baby has spina bifida, both mom and baby should be referred to a high-risk pregnancy specialist for further evaluation. A series of ultrasounds will be performed throughout pregnancy to monitor the baby’s progress. A chromosomal analysis may be recommended to identify chromosomal abnormalities. Other tests, including a fetal MRI or fetal echocardiogram, may be recommended if other abnormalities are suspected. A pediatric neurosurgeon will evaluate the prenatal tests and discuss neonatal care and long-term outcome.
Picture the bounciest, bubbliest five-year-old you can imagine. Her songs and dance moves come straight from Beyoncé. She loves bright colors and runs to the mirror to check every outfit. Her goal is to be a superstar. And she is a child who was born with spina bifida, one whose immediate future appeared more filled with shunts, catheters and leg braces than mirrors and dancing. Read Full Story »
Kelly and her husband, Chad, count themselves very lucky. The diagnosis of an open neural tube defect, or myelomeningocele, led them on a journey of education, referral, consultations and, ultimately, to open fetal surgery for spina bifida repair. Read Full Story »
For many years, Dr. Mary Austin could count on one hand the people who knew. There was her close friend through middle school, who helped her pee by pushing on her lower abdomen. Years later, during her surgical training at Vanderbilt University, she confided in a mentor. Her husband knew, of course.
But until now, she hadn’t told even some of her close colleagues — or her patients. Read Full Story »
When you contact The Fetal Center, you will be in touch with a dedicated coordinator who will walk you through the process step-by-step and help you to understand every aspect of your care.
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The Fetal Center at Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital
UT Professional Building
6410 Fannin, Suite 210
Houston, Texas 77030
Phone: (832) 325-7288
Toll free: (888) 818-4818
Fax: (713) 383-1464
Note: This information regarding your condition is meant to be a helpful, informative introduction. Because every newborn is different, this may not be applicable to all cases, especially if there are additional defects. Your team of specialists at The Fetal Center will provide you with information specific to your pregnancy.
1 Source: Maternal–fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. Committee Opinion No. 720. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2017;130:e164–7.
2The animated feature provides families with comprehensive, objective information about the etiology and natural history of spina bifida, an extensive breakdown of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS Trial) and a step-by-step guide through the comprehensive, multidisciplinary evaluation and consultation process followed by a detailed look at the fetal surgery patient experience.