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Spina Bifida

General Information »Types »Causes »Testing »Patient Stories »
Patient Education Video »Treatment »Outcomes »Vista en Español »

Spina bifida, also known as myelomeningocele, is a birth defect that occurs when an area of an unborn baby’s spine does not form properly in the womb, exposing a section of the spinal cord and spinal nerves. This results in damage to the baby’s nervous system. It is the most common neural tube defect in the United States, affecting approximately 2,000 babies born in the country each year.

Traditionally, infants with spina bifida have surgery shortly after birth to repair the spinal defect. Today, repairing the spina bifida before birth, otherwise known as maternal-fetal surgery or in utero repair, is considered an effective treatment option to potentially reduce the risk of complications and improve the outcome in babies affected with spina bifida.

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Women with pregnancies complicated by fetal myelomeningocele who meet established criteria for in utero repair should be counseled in a nondirective fashion regarding all management options, including the possibility of open maternal–fetal surgery. Maternal–fetal surgery for myelomeningocele repair should be offered only to carefully selected patients at facilities with an appropriate level of personnel and resources.1

The Fetal Spina Bifida Patient Education Video,2 an educational resource and the first patient-centered educational video for spina bifida, serves as an objective, non-directive guide for patients and their families faced with the prenatal diagnosis as they explore the spina bifida treatment options.

What is spina bifida?

Spina bifida (myelomeningocele) is characterized by the abnormal development of the fetal spinal cord and/or meninges, the protective covering around the brain and spinal cord, during early pregnancy. When the neural tube, which forms the brain and spinal cord, does not close completely during fetal development, the malformed vertebrae (bones) in the backbone remain open allowing exposure of the spinal cord and spinal nerves, resulting in damage to the baby’s nervous system.

This neural tube defect can occur anywhere along the spinal column, and the severity of the neurological problems is often dependent on the location of the defect. Children with defects of the lower spine typically have better outcomes than those who have defects of the upper spine. The symptoms of spina bifida might cause disabilities that range from mild conditions such as difficulty walking to complete paralysis and impaired bladder and bowel function.

What are the types of spina bifida?

There are several types or variations of spina bifida. These variations depend on how the neural tube defect develops, what is protruding through the open neural tube, and what is covering the spina bifida abnormality. These variations include:

Spina Bifida - Myelomeningocele

Myelomeningocele (MMC)

is the most common and most severe form of spina bifida. With myelomeningocele, a sac of fluid that holds part of the spinal cord and nerve tissue protrudes through an opening in the baby’s back. This damages the spinal cord and nerves through exposing them to the amniotic fluid. MMC can result in partial or complete paralysis of the body below the level of the spinal opening, an inability to walk, and/or bladder and bowel dysfunction.

Spina Bifida - Myelomeningocele


is a flat neural tube defect without a layer of skin covering the opening in the spine. With myeloschisis, the spinal cord and the surrounding nerve tissue are also exposed to the amniotic fluid. This form of spina bifida has similar risks and symptoms as myelomeningocele.

MMC and myeloschisis are both open neural tube defects, which are treatable by fetal repair surgery.

Spina Bifida - Myelomeningocele


is a form of spina bifida where there is an outpouching or sac through an abnormal opening in the fetal spine, but the sac contains only spinal fluid. This abnormality does not contain any nerve tissues. Often the sac is covered by skin. Babies with meningocele may have few or no symptoms, while others may develop degrees of paralysis with bladder and bowel dysfunction.

Spina Bifida - Myelomeningocele

Spina bifida occulta,

or “hidden spina bifida,” is the mildest form of spina bifida, where a small gap in the spine occurs, but there is no opening or sac on the baby’s back. Often not discovered until late childhood or early adulthood, this condition usually does not cause any disabilities as the spinal cord and the nerves are typically normal.

What causes spina bifida?

In most cases, the causes of spina bifida are unknown, though it has been associated with maternal diabetes, certain medications and certain genetic problems. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention urges all women capable of becoming pregnant to take 400 micrograms or more of folic acid every day for at least three months prior to pregnancy to help prevent neural tube defects.

What are the risk factors?

While the symptoms of spina bifida can range from mild to severe, most children with spina bifida experience major disabilities throughout their lifetime. These include: neuromuscular issues; paralysis of the lower limbs, or the inability to walk; bowel and bladder control difficulties; brain abnormalities such as brain herniation; and learning disabilities.

What are the exams and tests to diagnose spina bifida in pregnancy?

Spina bifida can be diagnosed during pregnancy. A common blood test, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), is offered during the 15th to 20th week of pregnancy to screen for spina bifida. If the levels of alpha-fetoprotein are abnormal (elevated), doctors can use additional tests, such as ultrasound and amniocentesis, to diagnose spina bifida. Use of the AFP test along with an ultrasound typically identifies 90 percent of cases.

If it is determined that the unborn baby has spina bifida, both mom and baby should be referred to a high-risk pregnancy specialist for further evaluation. A series of ultrasounds will be performed throughout pregnancy to monitor the baby’s progress. A chromosomal analysis may be recommended to identify chromosomal abnormalities. Other tests, including a fetal MRI or fetal echocardiogram, may be recommended if other abnormalities are suspected. A pediatric neurosurgeon will evaluate the prenatal tests and discuss neonatal care and long-term outcome.

Patient Stories

Faith Hagler

Faith Hagler Five Years Later: Celebrating Independence from Spina Bifida

Picture the bounciest, bubbliest five-year-old you can imagine. Her songs and dance moves come straight from Beyoncé. She loves bright colors and runs to the mirror to check every outfit. Her goal is to be a superstar. And she is a child who was born with spina bifida, one whose immediate future appeared more filled with shunts, catheters and leg braces than mirrors and dancing. Read Full Story »

Duke Williams

Double the Birthday Celebrations for Spina Bifida Patient

Kelly and her husband, Chad, count themselves very lucky. The diagnosis of an open neural tube defect, or myelomeningocele, led them on a journey of education, referral, consultations and, ultimately, to open fetal surgery for spina bifida repair. Read Full Story »

Mila Grace: The Little Smile Monster

When Natalie’s unborn baby daughter, Mila Grace, was diagnosed with spina bifida in utero, Natalie and her husband, Kevin, were stunned. Natalie was referred to The Fetal Center at Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital, where she underwent maternal-fetal surgery aimed to reduce the risk of complications associated with spina bifida and improve long-term outcomes for Mila Grace. Read Full Story »

Contact Us

When you contact The Fetal Center, you will be in touch with a dedicated coordinator who will walk you through the process step-by-step and help you to understand every aspect of your care.

Contact UsMap & DirectionsVista en Español

The Fetal Center at Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital
UT Professional Building
6410 Fannin, Suite 210
Houston, Texas 77030

Phone: (832) 325-7288
Toll free: (888) 818-4818
Fax: (713) 383-1464

Note: This information regarding your condition is meant to be a helpful, informative introduction. Because every newborn is different, this may not be applicable to all cases, especially if there are additional defects. Your team of specialists at The Fetal Center will provide you with information specific to your pregnancy.

1 Source: Maternal–fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. Committee Opinion No. 720. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2017;130:e164–7.

2The animated feature provides families with comprehensive, objective information about the etiology and natural history of spina bifida, an extensive breakdown of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS Trial) and a step-by-step guide through the comprehensive, multidisciplinary evaluation and consultation process followed by a detailed look at the fetal surgery patient experience.